In order to define the basic elements for harmonisation in the field of drinking water safety and security, existing European standards and directives are presented. A specific focus is made on biological risks. It clearly appears that little information is available for biological monitoring and only a few microorganisms are recommended for monitoring. Outside Europe, guidelines and directives are available either at international (the World Health Organisation (WHO)) or at national (Canada, the United States, Australia) levels. Although the risks may be different from one country to another, these documents can be considered as models, as they include reference scientific information. Various European partnerships also exist to tackle water quality, such as the water joint programming initiative (JPI-Water), the water European innovation partnership (EIPWater), Eureau, the water information system for Europe (WISE), and mandate 487 (M/487). All these networks are of great importance because they group the major stakeholders in the water sector (institutions, private companies, operators, governmental agencies, regulators, etc.). They point out the needs, and are actively involved in driving strategy, policy, and scientific approaches. In parallel, EU-funded projects ensure research and development (R & D) innovations and they define future monitoring technologies and efficient European networks. Finally, recommendations are presented in order to avoid overlap with existing initiatives and to strengthen the mission of the water thematic group.